If the drilling results are conclusive, the well is put into production
The exploitation of a field is generally spread over several decades (10 to 15 years) with the implementation of different techniques as the field ages. Oil production and associated water management is adapted to the different stages of the field’s life. There are two types of wells for this purpose : oil-producing wells and water-injecting wells.
At the beginning, the wells produce a fluid composed essentially of oil (petroleum) at a sustained rate (called peak production). The pressure in the oil reservoir is high: the oil can flow naturally to surface (this is called a natural flowing well). The flow rate rapidly decreases and the well no longer produces spontaneously (non-eruptive well). Pumps are then run in hole to bring the oil to the surface and continue its exploitation.
As the field is operating, the pressure inside the reservoir drops and the field produces more and more reservoir water. In order to stabilize this pressure and replace the volumes of fluid extracted, this water must be returned to the original reservoir via dedicated injector wells. The injection points are wisely choose to sweep the oil to the producing wells.
The different oil pumping devices :
If the reservoir does not have sufficient energy to produce fluids to surface, the wells are called “non-eruptive”. In this case, a pumping device adapted to production conditions of the well is run in hole to bring the fluid to the surface. The choice of pumping system is suitable to the flow rate of the well. Wells can be equipped with two main production systems: